For questions 16 – 30, read the text below and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. Choose from the list of words before each test
in- to- have – as- which – with – time – since – than – yourself – plenty/lots- some/many – put – what – this
Caravanning in Wales
The sea cliffs and sandy beaches of Wales are hard (0) ____to____ beat. Add to (16) ________wild, romantic scenery, ancient castles, modern theme parks and cheap accommodation and you’ve got a great family holiday. Of course (17) _______makes Wales so green is the rain. Even in mid-summer, you can expect a couple of wet and windy days. But don’t let that (18)__________ you off. There are (19) __________of indoor activities, so you can enjoy (20) ________whatever the weather. For (21) _________people
Wales is a caravan country. If you haven’t stayed in a caravan (22) ________you were little, it’s (23) _________you tried it again. Standards of comfort are much higher (24) ________a decade ago, with facilities such (25) _________laundries and kids’ play areas. A good example is theFontygary Holiday Park. You can stay in a spacious caravan equipped (26) __________TV, shower, separate bedrooms and fridge, (27) ____________works out to be less expensive when compared (28) ____________a guesthouse or self-catering cottage. And you won’t even need to leave the site to (29) ______________fun. The kids can swim in the 25-metre indoor pool, or join (30) ____________ the games organized by the entertainment staff. Meanwhile you can take a sauna, go to the gym, have your hair styled, or just sit on the cliff top and enjoy the view.
out – be/get – by – in – thanks – case – which – example/instance – of – whether/if – wrong – others/some – fact – out – longer
When going (0) ___on___ holiday, it is always a good idea to take (16) _________travel insurance. This is just in (17) __________something goes (18) __________ along the way. You could lose your luggage, you could (19) _________robbed, or even become ill and need expensive medical treatment. For millions of holiday makers, travel insurance is just a precaution (20)___________ will help them have an enjoyable and worry-free holiday. But for (21) __________ , travel insurance is a way of earning money (22) __________ making false claims against insurance companies. For (23) ____________ , some people pretend that they have had expensive equipment stolen which in (24) __________ never even existed, and then claim large sums (25) _____________ compensation. Such claims cost insurance companies a total (26) _________£50 million per year. But the cheats’ luck is about to run (27) ________ . (28) ________to a new computer system, companies will be able to tell at a glance (29) ___________ someone has made a claim within the last three years. Honest travellers will no (30) ___________ have to pay through the nose for other people’s dishonesty.
You not only laugh more (0) ___when___you are relaxed, but you (16) ________relax when you laugh, and it has (17) ________found that when you’re (18) _________ holiday it is easier to do both. But for (19) ___________ people laughter is not just a pleasure, it is a (20) __________ of fighting illness. Some hospitals have begun to bring in clowns to relieve the silent, depressing atmosphere, especially in children’s wards. This scheme is called “Medical Smile” and it helps sick children in a (21)__________ that doctors, with all (22) _____________ knowledge, can’t do. The effect of the clowns is more (23) ___________ psychological. Laughter helps strengthen the immune system- (24) _________ is, the part of our bodies (25) __________fights off disease. We take (26) _________more oxygen when we laugh, and our heartbeat slows (27) _________ . Hospital clowns are becoming more (28) ________more popular because (29) ______ the positive effect they have. They both relieve depression, which tends to (30) __________ illnesses worse, and give people the will to fight their illnesses themselves.
fact – have – who – like – well – at – in/from – or – out – point/time – idea/prospect/thought – will/may/can/could – then – from – such
Coping with Shyness
Shyness is a problem that is common (0) ___to___many people. In (16) __________ , according to Mr Zimbardo, a distinguished psychologist at Stanford University, eight (17) _________ of ten people are reported to (18) _________been shy at some (19) ___________in their lives. Most people (20) __________have this condition, suffer feelings of discomfort and anxiety at the (21) ___________of meeting others, especially at social gatherings (22) ____________parties. Keeping away from such situations is not really a solution, of course, and if a shy person can manage to overcome their fears they (23) ___________ gain a feeling of self-satisfaction as (24) ___________as improving their social life. However, if the case of shyness is severe, when important occasions are missed or a person’s social, educational or professional life is affected, (25) ___________ the label “shyness” is inappropriate. (26) ___________ this stage, it is termed “social phobia”. Those suffering (27) ______________ this condition are very often bright, talented and sensitive people. But feelings of social isolation, resulting (28) _____________ loneliness, can lead to additional problems (29) _____________ as alcohol abuse or addiction to medication. Fortunately, a number of treatments are available and come in the form of individual (30) ____________ group therapy and training. Therefore, a person who has social phobia has an excellent chance of recovery.
time – some/other/many – has – when – have – take – to – more/in – up – who – to – from – amount/level(s)/proportion – in – on
Wake Up, It’s Summer!
The summer season makes (0) ___all/most____ of us feel good, and scientists believe that they (16) ____________ discovered the reason for this. “Bright light makes you feel more awake and helps you sleep better,” says Dr. Arendt, from the University of Surrey, (17) ___________ is studying the effect of light (18) _____________ the human body. Light travels through the eye and sends a message to the part of the brain that controls sleep and appetite. So in the summer months (19) ____________ sunlight is increased, your energy level goes (20) ____________ thus decreasing the need to eat and sleep. (21) ___________ addition, the heat from the sun also (22)__________ a calming effect as it reduces blood pressure, producing a feeling of relaxation. Sea and mountain air are also beneficial in summer as they make you breathe (23) __________ deeply, increasing the (24) _________ of oxygen in your blood. For (25) __________ people, however, there is a negative side (26) ___________summer. Those suffering (27) __________ low blood pressure may experience feelings of tiredness and anxiety at this (28) ___________ of year. Experts advise such people to (29) _________ up exercise and to add more salt (30) ___________ their diet. So, if you can, enjoy the benefits of bright light, warm days and seaside air and you’ll feel completely refreshed. ‘
about – having – fact – from – something/a – whether – lot – for – there – while – full – more – well – most/many/all – be
We (0) ____all____ love to eat between meals, (16) ________it’s a bar of chocolate after breakfast or a packet of crisps before dinner. But when we think (17) _______it, most of these “snack” foods are (18) __________of fat, salt and sugar and thus contain a (19) ________of calories. Another disadvantage is that after (20) _________consumed these foods, there is a temptation to eat (21) __________as they still leave you feeling hungry. But who says snack foods have to be bad (22) ___________you? They can, in (23)___________ , be very good for you if you just choose carefully. One of the best and healthiest snack options is dried fruit. It’s really tasty and makes a brilliant, easy-to- eat snack, as (24) __________as leaving you satisfied. (25)_____________ is also a great variety to choose (26) ________, with dried bananas, apricots, grapes and apples available at (27) ___________ supermarkets. You can enjoy dried fruit for morning and afternoon breaks, at school or at work, in the car or (28) ___________watching television. Dried fruit also makes the perfect fast food for late-night homework sessions. So next time you fancy (29) ___________sweet, try the healthy option and you’ll (30) _________ pleasantly surprised.
who(m) – in – without – will/can – ones – sure – other – cost – well – after – no – all – when/before – all – get /help
Organising a dinner party can (0) ___be___ a stressful business. Firstly you have to decide (16) _______you are going to invite and make (17) _________ the guests are going to mix well. It’s (18) ________good inviting people that are either going to sit around (19) small groups and only speak to each (20) ________or people that are going to hide behind the furniture and not talk at (21) ________. Also you have to ensure they can get to and from your home (22) _________any problems. Next is organising the food. You want to prepare a meal that is above average standard, but doesn’t (23) _________ the earth. It is also wise to ask the guests about their likes and dislikes (24) ________ you invite them, as you don’t want to serve up a meal nobody (25) _______ eat. Cooking the meal is important as (26) __________ , because you want it ready at the time you stated. Seating arrangements are important too. You don’t want (27) _________the quiet guests at one end of the table and the talkative (28) __________ at the other. Serving drinks before, during and (29) ________ the meal is always a good way to (30) _________ people to relax and chat. And remember to shut the cat in another room, as you don’t want it jumping onto the table searching for a snack!
many – take – until – down – at – spare – has – over/during/for – other – on- which – far/much – for – in – be
The Golden Gate Bridge
The Golden Gate Bridge has linked San Francisco and theMarin
Peninsula for more (0) ___than___ 50 years. However, building it was no easy task. The idea of linking the two places was not a new one but it wasn’t (16) _______1917 that the first workable design was produced. It would (17)_______twenty years to complete the bridge, and from the outset there were (18) _______difficulties: rough waters, the often foggy conditions and the danger of earthquakes all combined to make constructing this bridge a (19) _______trickier business than building New York’s George Washington Bridge. The Golden Gate Bridge, (20) _______was then the largest in the world, was finished (21) _______ May 27th, 1937. Californians flocked to their new showpiece and walked from one end to the (22)__________ . The next day it was opened to cars. (23) _______ the past 58 years it (24) __________ been part of daily life for millions of commuters. Of course, its paintwork must (25) __________ kept (26) _______good condition. A 28-man team is responsible for this. If you thought Michelangelo needed a good head (27) ________ heights to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling, just (28) _________ a thought for these men. The bridge stands (29) __________4,200 feet. The trick, agree the painters, is never to look (30)_______ . Rather them than us!
there – so – into – supposed/thought/said/ – along – the – in – was – where – of – will/can – plenty/lots – many – middle/heart /depth – by
With (0) ___its___warm sunshine, sparkling seas and serene landscapes, Cyprus offers (16) _______of reasons to escape the grey winter days. Cyprus has so (17) ________attractions as a holiday island. The sun shines most days of the year and even in the (18) _______of winter the days are warm and inviting. The shoreline of rough cliffs, sandy beaches and old harbours is washed (19) ______the Mediterranean. Inland, you (20) _______discover another world of ancient mountains and green valleys with neat fields, orange and lemon groves, vineyards and old villages built out (21) ________stone Legend has it that Cyprus was the place (22) _________the ancient Greek goddess of love, Aphrodite, (23) ________born. The exact spot is (24) ________to be the Rocks of Romiou, a beautiful beach just (25) the coast from the old port and town of Paphos. This is (26) _______largest town in Cyprus and is located (27) ________the south western part of the island. Paphos has developed (28)_________a thriving modern city and is a large tourist resort, but even (29) _________, it has managed to preserve its ancient past. The old harbour is still the central part of the town with tavernas lining the waterside. (30) ________are also excellent bars, clubs and restaurants in the modern part of town where visitors can enjoy traditional food and entertainment.
been – than – fit – for – but – could – turned – value – whose – aim – being – which – example/instance – terms – allow
Fashion designers have finally realised that working women are (0) ___their____main customers. Well-made clothes for the office rather (16) ________high glamour are now top priority. This season’s designs show that the working woman has (17) ________ very important to a wide range of fashion designers, with garments being made to (18) _________ not only the body (19) _________ the lifestyle as well. (20) _________ years, plain-coloured basic suits were the only thing business women (21) ________ wear, but today’s woman isn’t happy wearing what is no more than a version of a man’s business suit. She wants her clothes to be elegant, modern and dynamic – and good (22) __________ for money. While few big names in fashion have (23) ___________ their attention to the office, a new group of designers is emerging, (24) _________main goal is to dress city women in style. Collections are (25) __________ designed with the (26) ___________ of providing easy, comfortable, all-purpose clothes (27) __________will free women from thinking only in (28) ________of the usual blouse, jacket and skirt. For (29) ___________, a long black fitted jacket worn over a simple but beautifully cut dress would (30) ________ a woman to go from the office to a cocktail party with elegant ease.
comes – keep/stay – shown – against/from – who – but – fewer – as – been – much – in – take – up – due – such/this
Keeping Warm In Winter
Do you feel the cold? If the answer is “yes”, then (0) ___why____not try a cold bath or shower? This unusual advice (16) ________from a natural health therapist in Germany (17) ________, for the last 30 years, has (18) ________studying the effects of cold water. Most people are brought (19) ________to believe that it’s important to (20) __________warm during the cold weather, with extra clothing and heaters, (21) _________ research shows that the opposite is true. At a German health centre, hundreds of visitors follow this advice by taking their first cold bath at 6 am, and come out feeling (22) _________ more relaxed. This is (23) __________ to the fact that the cold water increases blood sugar levels, the heart beat and breathing rate. New research at the medical centre of Hanover has (24) __________ that those taking daily cold baths have 50% (25) __________ colds and breathing problems than those who don’t. Studies (26) ________
London have also proven that (27) __________ treatment will help protect (28) ___________ heart attacks. For those people who find the idea of such behaviour unthinkable, then regular exercise such (29) ___________ running or cycling is a good alternative. So, next time you’re suffering from the cold, don’t sit and complain, (30) __________ action!
been – from/using – than – our – them/one – has – enough – being/also – less – so – order – in/with – which/that – can – from
Across South America one can find a variety of frog unlike (0) ___those/any____found in Europe. Apart (16) _______being different colours, such as yellow and blue, these frogs are poisonous. Some of them are (17) ________ poisonous that even touching (18) _______ can be fatal. The Embera Choco people of Colombia have (19) ________ using toxins from frogs for many years in (20) ________ to hunt. However, since the arrival of other types of weapons in the rainforest, the .art of making dart guns (21) __________ started to disappear. However, it is still possible to find craftsmen making dart guns (22) _________ the trunks of palm trees. The actual dart is covered (23) __________ poison from the frog’s skin. The poison will remain strong (24) ______ to kill animals for more (25) a year. About 55 of the 135 species of South American frogs are toxic. The frogs are brightly coloured to warn predators not to touch them. Some species of frogs produce toxins (26) _________may be useful for mankind as painkillers. A number of species are (27) ________bred by researchers in the States to investigate the possibility of using toxins for (28) ________benefit. By licking the frog’s skin scientists (29) _______judge the level of toxins. There is no danger of being poisoned, though, as frogs in captivity gradually become (30) _______poisonous.
any/all/most – look/seem/be/appear – such – like – have – other – be – because – as – with – kind/type – on – their – have – number
We are frequently told these days that we should eat more vegetables (0) ___as____part of a healthy diet. However, a large (16) _______of people are still not taking this advice. One of the reasons could be that they (17) ________ bad memories of the few vegetables they were forced to eat by (18) ________parents when they were children. (19) ________ the other hand, potatoes are one (20) ________ of vegetable which we are familiar (21) _______ although we do not perhaps think of them (22) ________ healthy food to eat. Of course, chips are not very good for us (23) _______ of their high fat content, but potatoes can (24) _______ cooked in many other interesting ways which do not harm our health. (25) ________ vegetables which we will almost certainly (26) _________ eaten are carrots, turnips and parsnips. Carrots can be eaten raw, while parsnips can be prepared (27) ________ potatoes, and baby turnips are crisp and as sweet as apples when cooked. Alternatively, there are many different vegetables in the shops, (28) _________as celeriac, kohlrabi and salsify. These may (29) _______ strange to us at the moment, but they are as easy to cook as (30) _________ of the other vegetables mentioned and make a delicious change.
few – also – fit – along/on – on – are – pay – other – harm/damage – when/if – by – well – otherwise/or – let – that
Mountain biking is becoming an increasingly popular sport, as people become (0) ____more________ interested in keeping (16) ________and doing activities which take them out of their homes. It is not only a pleasurable way of improving your fitness, but (17) _________one of the most rewarding ways to explore the countryside. However, it is important to follow a (18) _________simple rules, other- wise you could (19) ___________the environment and spoil (20) ___________people’s enjoyment. Cyclists can use any road but they must (21) __________attention to the type of path they are on. Some paths (22) __________only designed for people who are (23) __________foot, so if you are cycling (24) __________ these, you could cause inconvenience to walkers as (25) _________ as ending up being taken to court (26) ___________ the owner of the land you are on. On any other path, you should still respect walkers and be careful (27) _________you are passing horse riders. Other things which you are asked to do are to close gates behind you, so (28) ___________farm animals cannot escape, and to take your rubbish home with you. Always (29) _________someone know where you are going and carry the right equipment and clothing for unexpected conditions, (30) _________you could be creating unnecessary problems for yourself.
who – to – over/around – as – of – enough – worth – lots/plenty – worth – in – place – of – so – all – other/popular
The Isle of Wight
The Isle of Wight is a small island just (0) ___off____the south coast of England near the towns of Portsmouth and Southampton. Queen
Victoria loved the island (16) _______ much that she had Osborne House built, which has not changed at (17) _______ since the days when she used to visit with her huge family. (18) ________ tourist attractions include Butterfly World, where, (19) _________ the name suggests, visitors can see a large range __________ (20) butterflies, and two zoos. In summer it is usually warm and sunny (21) _________ for holidaymakers to enjoy the miles of clean beaches. Alternatively, for those (22) __________ want to be out of doors but don’t like sunbathing, the Isle of Wight is an excellent place for cyclists. There are numerous little paths which lead (23) ________picturesque villages all (24) _______the island.
Newport, the island’s capital, is also (25) _________a visit. It is a busy little town with (26) _______of small specialist shops. (27)________ the beginning of August, there is the most famous yachting week (28) _________the world, which takes (29) _______at
Cowes. During that week Cowes is full (30) _______carnival atmosphere and every bar and restaurant is packed.
of/like – of – for – much – its – before – which – so/this – able – well – one – however – when/if – between – most
Contrary to popular belief, it is not true (0) ___that___we use only 10 percent of our brain power; it is (16) ______of the myths of modern times. The brain controls all of our bodily functions as (17) _______ as carrying out the most complicated processes (18) _________ thought and imagination. There must (19) __________ , be some spare capacity built into the system because brain cells – unlike most of the body’s other cells – are not (20) _________ to divide and therefore are incapable (21) __________ replacing themselves (22) __________ they die. It is possible to increase the abilities of our brain. We do _________(23) when we learn to read, (24) ________ example. Current research shows that the learning process creates new connections (25) __________brain cells (26) ________ increases our mental powers. But scientists are unable to say exactly how (27) ________ of our brains we don’t use. Despite a lot of research, the brain is still the (28) _________ mysterious organ in the body and it will be many years (29) ________ enough information can be gathered to explain all (30) _________ functions.
under – makes – are – which – making – few – your – time/care – some/this – in – causes – much – down – after/within – of
Do you grab quick snacks (0) __at__work, eat late at night and drink too (16) ________ tea and coffee? If so, you’re probably (17) ________ stress, and your eating habits are (18) _______ the problem worse. The effects of stress can be beaten by following (19) _________ simple advice. First, cut (20) _________ on coffee, tea and cola drinks. They all contain caffeine, which (21) _________ you feel better for a (22) ________ minutes, but which also destroys the vitamins (23) _________ our bodies. Try not to eat sweets, biscuits and cakes. A quick burst of sugar suddenly increases blood-sugar levels; however, (24) _______ 2 or 3 minutes, you (25) ________ left feeling tired and irritable. Don’t drink alcohol to forget (26) ________ worries. In the long term, alcohol (27) _________ depression. Eat plenty (28) _________ citrus fruit and green vegetables as they contain Vitamin C. Red meat and seafood contain iron, (29) __________ helps fight nervous tiredness. Remember to eat a good breakfast to start the day well. Take (30) ___________ to eat properly and try to avoid eating late at night. Avoid junk food. Fresh is best!